Court of Appeal approves Chege on “persistent offender”, sets out when a foreign criminal is socially and culturally integrated in the UK

The appeal in Binbuga (Turkey) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2019] EWCA Civ 551 (04 April 2019) concerned the following:



  • whether TB was a “foreign criminal” as defined in Section 117D(2) of the Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002;

  • if so, whether Exception 1 in Section 117C(4) NIAA applies and

  • if not, whether the “very compelling circumstances” test is met

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